State Government – EV Grants and incentives

With some exciting announcements around funding from the Australian Government, we’re seeing a significant increase in grant funding for electric infrastructure and vehicles. Australia is getting serious about a cleaner transport future and it’s more important now than ever to start thinking about your future fleets.

The Australian government has presented its Future Fuels and Vehicles Strategy, which provides for $250 million of investment in electric transport to include the expansion of electric car charging infrastructure and the establishment of hydrogen filling stations.

Below is a detailed overview of the specific measures being taken, or having been announced by each state around charging infrastructure network funding.


State: New South Wales

Activities for infrastructure

The NSW Government has announced a $490 million commitment to incentivise the EV uptake.

  • The NSW Government has committed $171 million investment to help co-fund private operators for installation of EV charging infrastructure throughout the major highways of the state at the interval of 100 km, over the next four years. This includes $131 million for new ultra-fast vehicle chargers, and $20 million in grants to small tourism businesses over the next three years to boost EV infrastructure at regional tourism destinations. According to the EVC, until 2020, the overall investment in charging infrastructure by the NSW Government was around $5 million.
  • They are developing guidelines for installation of charging points in roadside service centres 
  • They’re supporting EV charging through strategic land use planning and guides (NSW is creating a state-wide master-plan with Evenergi)
  • The NRMA is investing $10 million in more than 40 fast chargers across NSW and the ACT:
  • NSW Government and the NRMA will deliver at least 20 additional electric vehicle fast chargers to the existing regional network along NSW’s major highways. Previous to this announcement through its Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Plan the government plans to:
    • co-invest in fast chargers in regional NSW
    • co-invest in charging points in commuter car parks 
    • adopt preferred charging standards 

NSW is also launching its Electric Vehicle Infrastructure and Model Availability Program:

  • It will run competitive funding processes that will co-fund the deployment of fast electric vehicle charging infrastructure. 
  • It will also incentivise vehicle fleet owners, such as car rental companies, car share companies, and local councils to procure electric vehicles.

State: Queensland

Activities for infrastructure

Queensland launched EV Strategy in 2017

  • They have previously delivered the Electric Vehicle Super Highway (QESH), totalling 31 stations with the investment of $5.3 million.
  • Queensland are rolling out an EV destination charging network from 2017 onwards
  • They’re developing a workplace EV charging trial
  • Queensland has committed to invest $2.75 million for expansion of charging infrastructure by installing 18 new charging sites. The expansion will lead to the extension of the highway by 1800km into the regional outback.

State: Western Australia

Activities for infrastructure

The recent WA strategy includes:

  • Up to $20 million has been allocated to support the creation of an electric vehicle charging infrastructure network
  • Investment of $800,000 to install electric vehicle charging stations in government buildings to support the State Government electric vehicle fleet target
  • Investment of $3 million to install two hydrogen refuelling stations – the two stations will generate renewable hydrogen, one station will be in Jandakot and provide hydrogen for fleet vehicles and another at Christmas Creek Mine, in the Pilbara, will power hydrogen buses
  • Implementation of actions outlined in the State Government’s Distributed Energy Resources Roadmap that will assist the integration of electric vehicles, including consideration of incentives to promote daytime charging to help make best use of the midday solar generation peak and assessment of vehicle‑to‑grid technology forecasts. Buyback payments will be extended to energy exported to the grid from electric vehicles in the same way as rooftop solar
  • Planning for the integration of electric vehicles in the electricity grid, including the deployment of charging points (household and fast charge) and trials to better understand the capabilities of vehicle‑to‑grid technology
  • Tax exemptions on sales/use and leasehold till year 2025

State: South Australia

Activities for infrastructure

The South Australian Government is investing $18.3 million to deliver its Electric Vehicle Action Plan. This includes:

  • An investment of up to $13.4 million towards developing a state-wide charging network
  • Planning of 110 rapid highway charging stations installed across South Australia
  • A network of more than 350 fast destination chargers installed across major metropolitan centres, including an expected 100 destination chargers installed across Adelaide
  • An initial investment in September 2020 of up to $3.6 million on EV smart charging trials
  • Seeks $25 million of private investment in public charging stations
  • The State Government invites businesses and communities to be a part of a statewide project for charging infrastructure development

State: Victoria

Activities for infrastructure

In its recently announced plan, the Victorian Government has committed $19 million for charging infrastructure.

  • This investment will establish a fast-charging network at key tourist places, community destinations, and high use locations.
  • As part of a $100 million plan to drive ZEVs uptake, the State Government is investing $5 million for 100 charging stations (80% of this investment will go to Regional Victoria)
  • The Government has also provided the funding of $644,000 to install chargers across 17 sites in the Loddon Mallee region and $3 million to install ultra-rapid chargers connecting Euroa, Moe, Torquay, Ballarat and Horsham.
  • VIC has published a charging map with all available and planned stations
  • It’s also published its draft 30-Year Infrastructure Strategy (2020)
  • The Victorian Government has provided $3 million funding to support Chargefox’s roll-out of seven ultra-rapid charging sites across the state
  • Victoria is the first state in Australia to introduce the latest generation ultra-rapid EV charging stations capable of fully charging an Electric Vehicle in under 15 minutes and sourced from 100% renewable energy.

State: Australian Capital Territory

Activities for infrastructure

ACT Government is working on a ZEV Public Charging Master Plan (to be launched later in 2021) for a charging infrastructure roll-out including 50 publicly accessible chargers.

  • They’ve introduced 29 public stations (2019)
  • ACT has launched its 2018-21 strategy
  • They’ve facilitated the installation of further charging points in the ACT and on major routes to Canberra
  • Streamlined the approvals process for installation of publicly accessible electric vehicle charging points
  • The ACT Government seeks to amend the Parking and Vehicle Access General Code to require all new multi-unit and mixed use developments to install vehicle charging infrastructure
  • They’re working with local and state governments to facilitate the installation of charging stations on major routes to and from Canberra including routes to Sydney and coastal areas
  • Conducting a feasibility assessment for the installation of covered car parks with solar powered vehicle charging stations
  • To support the integration of EVs in the ACT, a $2.5 million grant for V2G technology trials was announced in 2020 through ARENA. This grant also supports the instalment of 51 bi-directional charging stations across the ACT and upgrades of ACT Government buildings to host charging infrastructure.

State: Tasmania

Activities for infrastructure

Tasmania’s state-wide electric charging network comprises of 14 fast chargers, from Geeveston to Scottsdale, and Queenstown to Burnie, as well as the Midlands in between. The network ensures that mid-range vehicles can travel nearly anywhere around the state.

  • The State Government invested $600,000 for 14 fast chargers and 23 workplace and destination chargers.
  • Tasmania’s ChargeSmart Grant Program is committed to $2.5 million investment in charging infrastructure throughout the state.
  • They’ve offered a number of grants for charging (2019):
    • ChargeSmart Fast Charging Program offered grants of up to $50,000 to support organisations to purchase and install Direct Current (DC) electric vehicle charging stations.
    • Destination: to $2,500 to support organisations to purchase and install Alternating Current (AC) electric vehicle charging stations for public use.
    • Workplace: up to $5,000 to support workplaces (e.g. councils, businesses and not-for-profits) to purchase and install electric vehicle charging stations
  • The Electric Vehicle Fast Charger Scheme, offers a refund of up to 50% cost rebate of the TasNetworks charges for power supply, only when considering installation of DC fast chargers for public use
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    Charging at home

    Home charging for fleets can require a process to recoup costs for employees. From working with several councils, we’ve found that 60% of Council staff garage at home. Understanding the options for home charging, therefore, will be critical in the absence of a suitable public charging network. Typically, at home people can install a 3kW or 7kW charger; however, it is also possible to charge from a standard wall plug. 

    It is generally a simple exercise which only becomes complex if switchboard upgrades, wall penetrations or civil works are required.

    There are several key benefits of home charging:

    1. Reducing the need for public charging
    2. Taking advantage of the low household electricity costs at night
    3. Ensuring that all electric vehicles are fully charged for the next day
    4. Reducing the demand for fleet facility infrastructure investments

    There are also several challenges with respect to home charging that must be considered:

    1. Charging at night at home will not synchronise with daytime solar renewable energy provision unless there is a separate battery for the home or hydro/wind generation on the grid.
    2. Policy decisions must be made in terms of who pays for the installation of the charger, and what happens when staff leave Council or move house.
    3. It can create complexity in terms of the need to recoup costs.
    4. The correct electricity rate must be applied to the energy consumed for proper reimbursement.  This may include varying time-of-use tariffs.

    Reimbursements for infrastructure and electricity costs for home-based charging of fleet EVs can be considered as follows:

    1. Infrastructure
      If the fleet decides to allow for home charging, then clear policy guidelines can ensure that home charging installation costs are fully reimbursed – including labour, electrical upgrades, charger installation and network service fees.
    2. Electricity
      When fleet vehicles are charged at home, there may be a need to  track and reimburse electrical expenditures. Electricity consumption from EV charging can be measured in a variety of ways:

    a.   Odometer readings: a corporate cost per km could be established, which is seen as a fair reflection of the average cost per km. This would be the simplest way to manage the issue, given that employees may also charge at public charging stations.

    b.   Telematics: Making use of fleet vehicle telematics enables the company to track energy consumption by vehicle rather than charger. Setting up charging reports by location guarantees that the amount of electricity consumed at home can be tracked.

    c.   Smart or networking-based charging stations: Smart charging stations that are networked have the capacity to track electricity usage and provide reimbursement. Some networks enable for company accounts, allowing for use reports to be delivered directly to the company administrator. Additional capabilities such as access control and charge management may be available with networked stations.

    d.   Monitoring through digital meters: Electricity meters are commonly used to assess energy consumption for invoicing and/or monitoring purposes. The meter must be dedicated to the EV charging circuit or integrated with a smart home monitoring system in order to track only the EV load. However, there are some restrictions to this approach. If the charger is ever used by non-fleet vehicles, or if the meter is not connected to a dedicated EV-only circuit, consumption data for the fleet vehicle will not be accurate.

    Given the large number of home garaged vehicles, it’s important for organisations like utilities, local governments , logistics companies or corporates  to explore potential solutions to home charging including potential policy changes. There is also an opportunity to work closely with state and national government agencies and charging networks to create a network that assists Council’s fleet transition while giving networks greater financial certainty.

    EV Basics – Maximising EV efficiency

    Just like with other types of vehicles, you can maximise the lifespan and operability of your EV, depending on how it is used and maintained.

    What can affect EV efficiency?

    The range is usually determined by the capacity of a fully charged battery and the power of the vehicle’s electric powertrain, but there are also other factors that can affect the range performance.

    Source: American Automotive Association [1]

    To maximise the driving efficiency of an EV, one can follow these five suggestions: [2]

    1. Conserve momentum: Just like with conventional vehicles, conserving momentum is the best method for efficient driving as it reduces the additional need for accelerating and braking, and thus energy consumption.
    2. Avoid harsh braking: One of the key features of EVs is regenerative braking, where some of the movement (kinetic energy) is converted back into electricity to recharge the batteries. Once a driver stops accelerating the motor creates a reverse torque – slowing down the car. Energy captured through regenerative braking is ~10% in normal driving and up  30% on descents. Regenerative braking differs from vehicle to vehicle.
    3. Observe the speed limit: EVs tend to be more efficient at lower speeds – which is why they are great for city driving.[3]
    4. Reconsider use of heating and air conditioning: the use of heating or air cooling in an EV has the most impact on energy efficiency when in extreme conditions.
    5. Be aware of eco-features: Most EVs have eco-driving features that can increase the driving range up to 20%.

    Note: Checking that tyres are correctly inflated, closing windows at higher speeds and removing unnecessary weight from the car can also improve driving efficiency- just like in internal combustion engine vehicles.

    Maximising range in extreme weather conditions

    Extreme weather conditions can have an impact on battery efficiency. However, understanding the effects of the weather, and the tips to counteract them, will allow for range optimisation.

    The biggest drain on an electric vehicle battery is the use of the air-conditioning and heating systems.

    In freezing conditions (-6°C), when the vehicles’ heating is being used, range can be reduced by around 40%. Similarly, driving in hot conditions (35°C +) with the use of air conditioning, range can be reduced by approximately 17%. [1] For this purpose, one can maximise driving range when driving in extreme weather conditions by: [4]

    • Using the precondition mode: Most EVs have a precondition mode that allows you to heat or cool the cabin (and battery) remotely. This can be activated when the EV is still connected so it uses electricity directly from the grid (or the power source) instead of using the electricity stored in the battery.
    • Using seat heaters: Most EVs use resistance heaters to heat the air in the cabin, which consumes a lot of power. Preheating the car while plugged in, and then switching to a seat heater, will extend the efficiency of your vehicle in cold weather. [5]
    • Parking the car in a garage: This will protect the battery from extreme cold, particularly if there is insulation in the garage or parking facilities.
    • Parking in the shade: When parking for long periods of time, it is wise to park in the shade to stop the vehicle and battery from getting warm in direct sun.

    Maximising the life of an electric vehicle battery

    It is important to charge your battery correctly, to maximise its life span. Vehicle manufacturers, such as Nissan, believe that EV batteries will outlast the vehicles they are in by 10-12 years.[6]

    To maximise the lifespan of a battery:

    • Avoid charging to full when possible. Just like with other batteries, EV batteries degrade faster when they are frequently fully charged or completely drained. To maximise the battery’s life, keep it charged between 20% and 80% of the onscreen capacity. Many EV drivers only charge every few days to meet their driving requirements. [7]
    • Use timers when charging. Allow the battery to have a cooling period in between charging and driving to minimise the use of the battery when the cells voltage is high. For this a simple clock timer used as a reminder to unplug your EV 30-60 minutes before the drive can be helpful. [8]
    •  

    Source: American Automotive Association [9]

    Understand what powers an EV.


    References

    1. https://www.aaa.com/AAA/common/AAR/files/AAA-Electric-Vehicle-Range-Testing-Report.pdf
    2. https://www.energysavingtrust.org.uk/sites/default/files/reports/Efficient%20driving%20in%20electric%20and%20low%20emission%20vehicles.pdf
    3. https://www.energy.gov/eere/electricvehicles/maximizing-electric-cars-range-extreme-temperatures
    4. https://www.greencarreports.com/news/1081982_electric-cars-in-winter-six-steps-to-maximize-driving-range
    5. https://www.greencarreports.com/news/1081982_electric-cars-in-winter-six-steps-to-maximize-driving-range
    6. https://www.autonews.com/automakers-suppliers/nissan-looks-ways-use-long-lasting-ev-batteries
    7. https://www.fleetnews.co.uk/electric-fleet/charging-and-infrastructure/make-your-electric-vehicle-battery-last-longer 
    8. https://www.plugincars.com/eight-tips-extend-battery-life-your-electric-car-107938.html
    9. https://exchange.aaa.com/automotive/automotive-testing/electric-vehicle-range/ 

    EV Basics – Ensuring EVs are fit for purpose

    During a fleet transition, ensuring the vehicles are operationally ‘fit for purpose’ should not be compromised when considering electric vehicles.

    It is essential that fleet assets are suitable for their corporate and operational requirements and also meet occupational health safety and transport legislation obligations in the mobile workplace.

    Understanding the main ‘fit for purpose’ criteria

    Electric vehicles should:

    • be operationally effective and have the range and performance needed to do the job
    • have an Australasian New Car Assessment Program (ANCAP) or
      European New Car Assessment Programme (NCAP) equivalent five stars rating
    • be available in the market as and when required
    • have a demonstrated level of reliability and local service agents
    • be supported by their manufacturers
    • come with spare parts – commitment to parts inventory and expedient supply lines.

    Are current electric vehicles ‘fit for purpose’?

    Electric vehicles are designed with the same fit for purpose considerations as other vehicles. Whether they are fit for purpose for a specific organisation depends on the self-established criteria set by each organisation.

    Each organisation will prioritise a variety of the above components differently and it is important to review these when considering an electric vehicle

    The focus when organisations are first considering electric vehicles is often on whether they will have a driving range to perform a specific job function. Many of the newer electric vehicles will have sufficient range for the function, as the average daily driving distances for vehicles is generally far less than the typical range of new electric vehicle.

    How to assess whether vehicles have sufficient range

    Telemetry (vehicle data monitoring), and/or user interviews, average km readings from (odometer) or fuel card information can be used to determine the average kms a vehicle drives.

    It is important to properly understand real range under conditions to do this assessment properly. In addition, when assessing range, it is important to understand “dwell-times” as this will indicate if the vehicles have sufficient time to charge between being used for tasks.

    What to take into consideration when buying an EV

    When considering electric vehicles, it is important to take into account that vehicle servicing needs are reduced, and the implications of this on staffing and support needs.

    It is important to use a holistic approach when considering an electric vehicle.

    You need to think about:

    • model availability
    • spare parts
    • customer service
    • quality of support for maintenance

    These will all affect the decision to purchase a new fleet vehicle.

    How EVs are supported

    The more volume a product has in a market, the more likely it will be supported and have a ready supply of spare parts.

    Support is of particular concern to fleet managers in remote locations where local dealer partners may not support the vehicles. Some vehicles have nationwide support offerings, however organisations should ensure that there is sufficient support for fleets from local dealerships and manufacturers when evaluating their purchasing decisions.

    EV Basics – EV Batteries

    EV batteries

    The lithium ion-battery is the most important component of an electric vehicle, as it is the energy source. The battery size is demonstrative of the vehicle’s driving range and charging capabilities. Battery size will also affect the cost of the vehicle.

    It is important to consider how to manage your electric vehicle battery, as its condition can impact residual values and vehicle efficiency.

    An electric vehicle battery

    The most common type of electric vehicle battery is made of lithium-ion. This is due to their specific energy (Wh/kg), cycle life and high efficiency. The battery is made up of two electrodes in an electrolyte.

    The electrolyte is where the exchange of ions takes place to produce electricity.  The lithium ions act as the charge carrier, allowing for the simultaneous exchange of positive and negative ions in the electrolyte. There are many options for the materials of the electrodes and electrolytes, hence there are different possible battery chemistries, each with their own advantages and disadvantages.

    These include:

    • Cobalt Oxide (LCO)
    • Lithium Manganese Oxide (LMO)
    • Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP)
    • Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC)
    • Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminium Oxide (NCA)
    • Lithium Titanate (LTO). [1]

    Comparisons of different types of Li-ion batteries used in EVs from the following perspectives:

    • specific energy (capacity)
    • specific power, safety
    • performance, lifespan and cost.

    Source: Miao Y. et. al, Energies, 2019

    Battery life

    Electric Vehicle (EV) batteries do not need to be replaced as frequently as a battery in an ICEV.  Car manufacturers offer battery warranty to provide comfort for consumers, though it is not intended to be demonstrative of a battery’s life.

    A BEV may need a battery replacement after 10-20 years, just like parts in an ICEV will need to be replaced over its lifetime. In an ICEV there are more moving parts, so there are more things to be replaced.

    Battery charging

    Electric vehicles now include Battery Management Systems (BMS) that limit charging capacity to prolong battery life. They control the temperature of the battery to reduce degradation and capacity loss. [2]

    As electric vehicle batteries are lithium-ion it means that certain conditions degrade the battery over time. It is important to charge the battery according to the guidelines to get the most out of the technology.

    Australian driving habits indicate an average drive distance of less than 50km per day, [3] so most drivers wouldn’t have to recharge daily given that the average BEV range for 2018/2019 Battery Electric Vehicles is 379km at 100% charge. [4]

    There are different ways to charge an EV, all with different capacities and time frames to suit the situation. There are currently four levels of chargers. For more information, refer to the All about chargers article.

    Battery conditions 

    Heat can affect battery life, so automakers are continuously innovating and investing in thermal management systems which protect the battery in harsh conditions.

    Battery Thermal Management Systems (BTMS) form part of the battery cells to protect EV batteries by warming them up or cooling them down as required.  A BTMS consists of systems that may be either active (external or internal sources of heating and/or cooling) or passive (natural convection). [5]

    Climate has not shown to be a barrier to uptake in warm or cold regions. California, which has a similar climate to the highly populated areas of Australia, has reached EV market penetration of 9% EV uptake in June 2021. [6] India, with a comparative temperature to the northern regions of Australia, has committed to EV policies to build India ‘as a driver in electric vehicles. [7] Norway, with an average winter temperature of -6.8°C [8] has the highest global EV uptake and a 54.3% market share of BEVs as of December, 2020.

    Battery technology: cost and range

    Battery prices

    Battery technology is constantly evolving, and as battery technology develops, the kWh cost of the battery drops. The price of a lithium battery has dropped significantly since 2010. In China the minimum reported price for batteries in e-buses is below $100/kWh. [9] On average, it is expected that the battery cost will reach $100/kWh by 2023.[10]

    Source: Union of Concerned Scientists

    Technological advancements are increasing Lithium-ion battery capacity, and innovation in the chemical make-up of lithium-ion batteries is driving the price of vehicles and end-of-EV-life replacement down. New developments include NCM 811 cells (available as early as 2019), [11] Lithium-sulfur, and lithium-solid state (2020-2030). [12, 13]

    Battery sustainability

    Read more about battery recycling and repurposing here.


    References

    1. https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/12/6/1074/pd
    2. https://roskill.com/news/electric-vehicles-china-takes-steps-to-streamline-ev-battery-recycling/
    3. http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/9208.0/
    4. https://myelectriccar.com.au/evs-soon-in-australia/ https://www.carsales.com.au/editorial/details/paris-motor-show-kia-e-niro-slated-for-australia-114925/ https://thedriven.io/2018/11/26/hyundai-launches-electric-vehicle-range-in-australia-first-ev-under-50000/ https://www.whichcar.com.au/car-advice/electric-vehicles-coming-to-australia-in-2019 https://reneweconomy.com.au/hyundai-lets-slip-pricing-for-new-ioniq-electric-vehicle-models-87892/
    5. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1757-899X/912/4/042005/pdf#:~:text=The%20main%20aim%20of%20the,such%20as%20water%20or%20air.
    6. https://www.energy.ca.gov/news/2021-06/report-shows-california-needs-12-million-electric-vehicle-chargers-2030 
    7. https://www.thehindubusinessline.com/opinion/electrifying-mobility-why-post-covid-rebound-promises-an-ev-boom/article34176082.ece 
    8. https://www.visitnorway.com/plan-your-trip/seasons-climate/winter/
    9. https://about.bnef.com/blog/battery-pack-prices-cited-below-100-kwh-for-the-first-time-in-2020-while-market-average-sits-at-137-kwh/ 
    10. https://www.bloomberg.com/opinion/articles/2019-04-12/electric-vehicle-battery-shrinks-and-so-does-the-total-cost
    11. https://insideevs.com/lg-chem-ncm-811/
    12. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acs.chemmater.0c02398 
    13. https://energy.mit.edu/news/designing-better-batteries-for-electric-vehicles/ 

    EV Basics – EV Driving Range

    EV driving range

    The driving range is the distance your EV can drive with the energy stored in its battery.

    An EV’s driving range can depend on:

    • the battery capacity
    • how the vehicle is driven
    • the external conditions (e.g. cold or warm weather)
    • the weight of the vehicle.

    Battery capacity

    The average range for an electric vehicle depends on the battery size. New EV models have driving ranges between 270-600km on a single charge. [1]

    How the vehicle is driven

    The way in which EVs are driven can also have an impact on range.  As with an internal combustion engine, quick acceleration and fast driving can impact a vehicles’ fuel efficiency.

    Extreme conditions (hot and cold weather)

    Driving in extreme temperatures (from -6C up to 35C) can affect battery range.  The use of heating and air conditioning can have a significant impact on an electric vehicle’s range.

    In weather conditions of -6°C, driving range can decrease up to ~40% while using heating, but it only decreases 12% when heating systems are not used.

    Similarly in hot weather temperatures of 35°C+, with the use of air conditioning the driving range can decrease up to 17%, and without air cooling around 5%. [2]

    Range Standards

    Range standards are a key driver of the EV industry because vehicle manufacturers advertise driving range to market their electric vehicles. As such, standardised range testing provides consumers with a uniform approach to range measurement.

    There are three main standards used to measure a vehicle’s range:

    • The Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP)
    • The New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)
    • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) testing standards.
    The Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure (WLTP)

    WLTP is the newest accepted test standard. It is a dynamic test cycle that aims to reflect a more representative picture of real driving conditions. All new-car registrations in Europe from September 2018 are required to use WLTP range estimates. [3]

    The WLTP test includes: [4]

    • More realistic driving behaviour;
    • A greater range of driving situations (urban, suburban, main road, motorway);
    • Longer test distances;
    • More realistic ambient temperatures, closer to the European average;
    • Higher average and maximum speeds;
    • Higher average and maximum drive power;
    • More dynamic and representative accelerations and decelerations;
    • Shorter stops;
    • Optional equipment: CO2 values and fuel consumption are provided for individual vehicles;
    • Stricter car set-up and measurement conditions;

    The WLTP will tend to show lower range and energy efficiency (fuel consumption) than NEDC values due to the more realistic conditions.

    The New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)

    NEDC is the previously accepted standard of testing. It was designed in the 1980s but has become outdated due to technological advances and changes in driving conditions. [5]

    The NEDC cycle is a cold-start driving cycle and it is divided into two parts, the first part simulates the driving conditions in an urban area, while the  second part simulates the driving conditions in extra-urban areas (or highways) [6].

    The NEDC has been found to have large differences (around 38%) between tested performance and real world performance. In Europe NEDC results on carbon emissions were on average 123 grams per kilometer (g/km), significantly less than the 170g/km evidenced on real world driving conditions [7]. Discrepancies are attributed to unrealistic low testing parameters and the narrow temperature range of NEDC testing [8]. The NEDC tests determined values based on a theoretical driving profile, which are considered to not match current driving profiles [9].

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

    EPA’s testing standards are from the United States. They were established in 1978 and last updated in 2009, and they produce fuel economy estimates for the country’s fuel economy-related programmes.

    The EPA requires car manufacturers to change and update their fuel economy values on fuel economy labels (the stickers visible in cars). The EPA tests for city, highway, high speed, with the use of A/C and in cold conditions. The EPA fuel economy ( energy efficiency and range for EVs) tend to show lower values than WLTP.

    EPA fuel economy test parameters

    The table below shows the test cycles and its attributes.

    Source: EPA [11]

    Comparing EV range across testing standards
    BEVWLTPNEDCEPA
    Nissan Leaf 2018 [7]270km378km242km
    BMW i3 2018-19 [8]310km359km246km
    Hyundai IONIQ 2019294km [9]378km [10]218km [11]

    Measuring range

    The range displayed on an EV’s digital display is not 100% of the actual capacity of the battery. While manufacturers tend to advertise the rated capacity (the full capacity the battery can provide), some of this total capacity is also used for other purposes.

    For example: battery management systems save a reserve of approximately 5% for emergencies and prevent damage to the battery. [12]

    If an EV displays 0% charged, it has emergency reserves (just like in an ICEV) however, it is not recommended to drive a battery down below 0%, because completely draining the battery can affect the health of the battery cells.

    Optimum state of charge

    An EV is typically between 20%-90% of its total capacity under most operating conditions. When discussing EV battery states of charge, common expressions such as “empty” or “fully charged” refer only to the portion of a battery’s capacity that is available for normal use, not its entire energy potential.

    As the battery degrades, the battery management system will continue to show the virtual 100% of range until capacity reserves are fully used (see figure below) [13]. Once the battery gets to about 70% of its original usable capacity, then the battery is no longer usable for EV driving.

    Source: CleanTechnica [12]


    References

    1. miles-by-2022-400-miles-by-2028-new-research-part-1/
    2. https://www.aaa.com/AAA/common/AAR/files/AAA-Electric-Vehicle-Range-Testing-Report.pdf
    3. https://insideevs.com/features/343231/heres-how-to-calculate-conflicting-ev-range-test-cycles-epa-wltp-nedc/
    4. https://wltpfacts.eu/wltp-benefits/
    5. https://wltpfacts.eu/fuel-consumption-increase-wltp/
    6. http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/trans/doc/2010/wp29grpe/WLTP-DHC-04-03e.pdf
    7. https://theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/ICCT_EU-CO2-stds_2020-30_brief_nov2016.pdf
    8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5304423/
    9. http://caremissionstestingfacts.eu/nedc-how-do-lab-tests-work/
    10. https://wltpfacts.eu/fuel-consumption-increase-wltp/
    11. https://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/fe_test_schedules.shtml
    12. https://cleantechnica.com/2018/08/26/the-secret-life-of-an-ev-battery/ 
    13. https://www.geotab.com/blog/ev-battery-health/ 

    Measuring the efficiency of electric buses

    With the rapid increase in electric buses around the globe, performance data is starting to emerge. Many municipalities are also conducting their own bus trials to work out how particular buses will perform on their routes. This is giving decision makers more clarity on stated, versus actual energy efficiency (kWh/km) of electric buses. Factors such as ambient conditions, topography and bus characteristics have significant effects on the real performance of an electric bus.

    Efficiency plays a key part in sizing a depot’s charging infrastructure, electrical upgrades and potential upstream infrastructure costs. It affects how long buses need to charge for, the coincidence of peak demand from multiple chargers and ability of buses to meet their charging needs in line with their schedule.

    Average efficiency vs. dynamic modelling

    An average efficiency (kWh/km), using data manufacturer’s stated numbers, data from another region, or even a route serviced from the same depot can lead to significantly under or over estimated energy consumption.

    We compare using an average efficiency versus a dynamic model for two typical metropolitan routes  below.

    Route A

    Average from Manufacturer’s Data: 1.17kWh/km

    BetterFleet Dynamic Model: 1.48kWh/km

    Difference: 26%

    Route B

    Average from Manufacturer’s Data: 1.17kWh/km

    BetterFleet Dynamic Model: 1.65kWh/km

    Difference: 41%

    This difference can lead to understated battery charging requirements leading to undersized charging infrastructure. Even if infrastructure is sized with margins for error, long-term operating costs from energy purchases will be significantly underestimated.

    BetterFleet

    Evenergi’s modelling software  BetterFleet™  can model individual routes from your depot, using actual topography and travel data. This means we can significantly de-risk your investment decisions when it comes to electrifying your bus fleet.

    Find out more about how Evenergi can help here.

    Vehicle to Grid – An Overview

    There are more than 80 V2G trials globally, with the majority of trials taking place in Europe where the world’s major automobile companies, distribution network service providers and electric car charger manufacturing companies are collaborating.

    The V2G hub maps out V2G projects from around the world, which includes projects with physical deployment of V2G technology for a specific use case and excludes experimental research and narrow technology demonstration.

    Companies can stay ahead of the game by taking part in V2G trials to test out the technology and evaluate the benefits for their fleet.

    What is V2G?

    Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) describes a system in which plug-in electric vehicles (EVs), such as battery electric vehicles (BEV) or plug-in hybrids (PHEV), communicate with the power grid to sell demand response services by either returning electricity to the grid or by throttling their charging rate.

    V2G storage capabilities can enable EVs to store and discharge electricity generated from renewable energy sources such as solar and wind, with output that fluctuates depending on weather and time of day.

    Benefits of V2G

    V2G directs the charging and discharging of EV batteries based on users’ needs and the grid’s electricity supply, it allows the electricity grid to optimise the supply of local renewable energy and reduce infrastructure costs, while the EV owner can enjoy greener, more economical consumption of electricity and be financially rewarded for serving the electricity grid.

    This means V2G comes with the following benefits for the EV owner and the distribution network:

    • Supporting electrical grid, reducing concerns for grid overload
    • Maximise the business case opportunity of your EVs
    • Cheap and fast energy storage
    • Making use of existing resources
    • Reduction of environmental impact

    How V2G works

    V2G directs the charging and discharging of electric-vehicle batteries in accordance with users’ needs and the grid’s supply of available electricity. When electricity supply exceeds demand (notably during peak periods of renewable energy production), charging occurs at the maximum level; however, during peak electricity demand, vehicles can then supply electricity into the grid.

    The figure below shows four models of V2G and the potential electricity and revenue flows across its stakeholders.

    Challenges of V2G

    The only technical disadvantage of V2G operation is the battery degradation due to the high number of charge/discharge cycles. Most electric car manufacturers are not providing warranty for V2G operations except a few i.e. Nissan and Mitsubishi. This strategy is still in its early stages to be implemented on a large scale.

    Applications for V2G

    Apart from providing local services at individual levels, when aggregated, EVs can also provide services to the grid for:

    • Voltage regulation
    • Frequency regulation

    Optimal utilisation of the energy resources (electric cars as battery reserves) will result in minimum cost of energy consumption for the end users as well as reduced impact on the electric power grid.

    Apart from V2G, it is worthwhile to think about V2X, which can be vehicle-to-grid, vehicle-to-building, vehicle-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-home. The concept remains the same with different applications.

    Evenergi consulting for V2G

    Evenergi can provide services for modeling the energy management systems by optimal utilisation of available energy resources.

    Evenergi can also help facilitate V2G trials with industry partners such as distributed network supply providers (DNSPs), electric car manufacturers, electric car charger manufacturers, and state governments.

    Contact Evenergi here.